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10 Hal yang Perlu Diketahui Sebelum Memasang Solar Panel

Ada banyak hal yang perlu diketahui sebelum memasang solar panel, agar produksi daya menjadi lebih maksimal dengan biaya yang efisien. Berikut adalah 10 poin utama yang dapat anda gunakan dalam merencanakan pemasangan sistem listrik surya anda. Jadi, siap untuk #goingsolar ?

Dimana lokasi rumah anda?

Apakah di Jakarta? Palembang? Kutai? Makasar? Bali? dan sebagainya. Mengetahui lokasi rumah akan membantu anda mengetahui potensi daya radiasi matahari yang bisa anda manfaatkan.

Sebagai contoh, Kutai berada di pulau kalimantan, tepatnya di Provinsi Kalimantan Timur, dan berada di atas garis khatulistiwa. Berarti anda yang tinggal di Kutai memiliki potensi daya matahari maksimal 4,8 kWh/ hari dengan kemiringan panel menghadap selatan.

Yang perlu anda ingat adalah jika kota yang anda tempati dibawah garis khatulistiwa, maka pemasangan panel surya disarankan menghadap utara. Sedangkan jika anda tinggal di atas garis khatulistiwa, maka pemasangan panel surya menghadap selatan. Sedangkan untuk kemiringan yang disarankan di Indonesia adalah antara 5º hingga 15º.

Baca Juga: Peta Potensi Energi Surya Di Indonesia

Kemana arah atap rumah yang mau anda pasang solar panel?

Apakah rumah anda menghadap barat? timur laut? selatan? Idealnya atap rumah anda harus menghadap utara atau selatan. Karena dengan begitu, sistem listrik surya akan bekerja dengan lebih maksimal. Namun jangan khawatir jika ternyata atap anda tidak menghadap ke arah yang ideal, seperti arah timur laut misalnya. karena sistem solar panel tetap akan terpasang dengan aman dan fungsional dengan perencanaan dan pemilihan solusi yang tepat.

Secara detail, anda dapat mendisuksikan perencaan maksimal atap rumah anda dengan penyedia solusi sistem listrik surya. Sebagai gambaran, jika atap anda tidak menghadap sempurna ke selatan atau utara, maka yang terjadi adalah sedikit menurunnya kapasitas produksi listrik surya anda, antara 3-8%.  Akan tetapi, dengan penentuan kapasitas panel surya yang tepat dengan penggunaan produk yang sesuai, maka penurunan kapasitas produksi listrik surya tersebut dapat diminimalisir hingga maksimal.

10 Hal yang Perlu Diketahui Sebelum Memasang Solar Panel

Berapa luas lahan yang tersedia pada atap anda?

Luasan areal atap yang anda miliki, berpengaruh terhadap berapa jumlah kapasitas sistem solar panelyang dapat anda pasang. Idealnya 1 kWp sistem solar panel untuk produksi rata-rata 1 kWh listrik, membutuhkan  lahan ± 2,5 m².

Mengetahui luasan atap juga dapat mempengaruhi pilihan penggunaan panel surya. Jika ruang terbatas, namun anda ingin memaksimalkan potensi produksi daya, maka anda dapat memilih panel surya tipe monocystalline yang memiliki efiensi lebih tinggi dibanding tipe panel surya crystalline lainnya.

Baca juga: Perbedaan Panel Surya Monocrystalline Dan Polycrystalline

Apa tipe atap anda?

Tipe atap berpengaruh terhadap pilihan jenis dan tipe struktur penyangga panel surya anda. Kebanyakan rumah di Indonesia menggunakan genteng keramik, sehingga dudukan penyangga dapat dipasang diantara sambungan genteng tanpa harus merubah struktur atap anda.

Berbeda jika atap anda menggunakan genteng Asbes atau Aspal. Tipe atap ini membutuhkan rangkaian penyangga yang dipasang menyatu dengan rangka atap rumah. Karena tipe atap ini, tidak memiliki sambungan yang dimanfaatkan seperti pada genteng keramik. dan akan lebih mudah jika ternyata atap anda adalah dak beton, sehingga penyedia dapat memaksimalkan ruang yang ada untuk meningkatkan produksi panel surya.

Berapa derajat kemiringan atap anda?

di Indonesia, rumah rata-rata memiliki kemiringan atap 30 – 40°. Sedangkan panel surya dapat menangkap sinar matahari, idealnya, pada minimal 5°. Semakin miring atap, efisiensi panel surya akan berkurang. Namun jangan khawatir, minus efisiensi ini cukup kecil dibandingkan dengan total produksi daya yang dapat dihasilkan panel surya anda.

Cukup pastikan ruang untuk pemasangan bebas dari halangan dan bayangan, dan panel surya dapat secara langsung menerima sinar matahari. Selama sinar matahari dapat bebas diterima oleh panel surya, maka besaran daya produksi panel surya dapat tetap dimaksimalkan.

Berapa jarak antar lokasi pemasangan sistem solar panel di atap dengan panel utama rumah?

Setiap susunan panel surya memerlukan panel kontrol. Karena daya yang dihasilkan panel surya adalah tipe DC, maka untuk meminimalisir kehilangan daya saat listrik dialirkan ke inverter, maka jarak ideal antara panel surya dengan inverter adalah ± 50 m. Setelah listrik DC diubah oleh inverter menjadi AC, maka anda dapat memanfaatkan listrik sebagaimana biasanya.

Sebagai pengaman, sistem panel surya akan dilengkapi dengan DC disconnect, kotak kontrol DC dan AC. Didalam kotak kontrol tersebut, secara terpisah, akan terdapat MCB (untuk mengamankan sistem dari hubung singkat) dan surge arester (untuk mengamankan sistem dari petir), juga perlu dipersiapkan pentanahan (grounding).

Berapa daya rumah anda?

Rata-rata penggunaan daya PLN di rumah adalah 1300 VA atau 2200 VA. Anda dapat menemukan berapa daya rumah anda di bukti pembayaran PLN. Mengetahui daya rumah dapat menjadi informasi penggunaan tipe sistem solar panel dan sebagai acuan untuk menghitung biaya investasi sistem solar panel.

Karena menurut peraturan PLN, anda tidak bisa memasanga sistem listrik surya atap melebihi dari kapasitas panel surya terpasang. Jadi ada kuota maksimal ± 90% kapasitas listrik surya yang dapat terpasang dari kWh meter anda. Singkatnya jika rumah anda 2200 VA, maka anda dapat memasang sistem panel surya dengan kapasitas ± 2000 watt atau ± 2 kWp.

Anda membutuhkan sistem solar panel untuk “penghematan” atau “pendukung” daya yang ada?

Tentukan fungsi penggunaan sistem panel surya anda, apakah sistem panel surya digunakan untuk penghematan? Jika ya, maka anda memerlukan sistem panel surya yang dapat terkoneksi dengan PLN dan mampu bekerja bersamaan dengan listrik PLN. Sistem panel surya ini biasa disebut Grid Tie.

Atau sistem panel surya akan anda gunakan sebagai pendukung daya PLN? Misalkan untuk persiapan pemadaman listrik atau untuk bekerja mandiri tanpa listrik PLN. Jika ya, maka anda memerlukan sistem panel surya yang dapat berfungsi mandiri, namun juga dapat dihubungkan dengan PLN sebagai alternatif pilihan sumber daya. Sistem panel surya yang dapat anda gunakan adalah PV Hybrid.

Seberapa sering PLN area Anda melakukan pemadaman?

Jika listrik PLN anda sering padam, maka anda tidak bisa hanya menggunakan sistem panel surya pada saat matahari ada. Sistem panel surya anda harus siap kapanpun listrik mati, sehingga dapat berfungsi maksimal. Bayangkan jika listrik padam pada saat hujan atau saat malam hari, dimana matahari tidak bersinar.

Oleh karena itu, anda membutuhkan baterai sebagai bank daya. Dimana kelebihan produksi listrik yang dihasilkan sistem panel surya pada siang hari dapat disimpan di baterai untuk dapat digunakan sewaktu-waktu. Sistem grid tie ataupun off grid, dapat memiliki kemampuan yang sama untuk menggunakan baterai.

Berapa dana yang anda punya?

Sistem solar panel bukan produk murah! (sebagai investasi awal). Namun dapat menjadi lebih murah dibanding PLN, jika dihitung dalam masa operasional, hingga +25 tahun. Sehingga, mengetahui berapa besar pendanaan anda, akan membantu perencanaan pemasangan sistem solar panel yang lebih matang.

Sistem solar panel memiliki sifat modular, sehingga kapasitasnya dapat ditingkatkan dengan mudah. Sehingga jika anda merencanakan memasang sistem 1 kWp, anda dapat mulai memasang dengan panel 100 Wp dan terus anda tambah hingga kapasitas total yang ingin anda pasang tercapai.

Sistem solar panel adalah salah satu alternatif penggunaan energi listrik yang ramah lingkungan. Sudah seharusnya, kita mulai beralih menggunakan sumber energi yang tidak pernah akan habis ini. Jadi, setelah membaca 10 hal yang perlu diketahui sebelum memasang solar panel, tertarik untuk #goingsolar?

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